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Shoreline Hotspot Sampling

Every year, it is recommended to sample all running pipes around the lake to identify sources of contamination (mostly likely spetic). This is done in a two step process.

Running Pipe Example
Picture of a “running pipe”

A small group of Water Quality volunteers, ideally 5, will paddle along a section of shoreline and check running pipes with a device called a conductivity meter. Conductivity, measured in micromhos, is a measure of water purity. Pure water will register 0 micromhos. Culver lake water runs in the 220 to 260 micromhos. Water with septic contamination will be >1000 micromhos. All water >500 micromhos should be evaluated.
Areas of sampling can be assigned as indicated by the color coding on this map (click for larger view).

Items to bring in kayak
. meter
. notebook or electronic device (with gps) to record
. pen
. dishcloth (to keep things dry)
. camera or cell phone for pictures
. small plastic cup
Taking a Sample
. take a sample when a pipe or inflow is present (see first picture)
. turn on meter
. if there is a good flow, dip meter in flow, observe reading
. if there is weak flow, allow water to run in cup, dip meter in cup and observer reading
. generally if reading is >500mm, record in notepad or electronic device
. take picture of pipe of recorded readings

The notebook log might look like this:
Number | Reading(micromhos) | picture# | Notes(location, etc)

Followup: When sampling is complete, the volunteers will confer and decide which sites will be resampled for coliform/e-coli. Criteria include: 1) Reading, all readings >1000 should be resampled. 2) historical reference (some locations have been sampled in the past, are naturally “high” and do not need further testing).

When a follow-up list has been developed, the patrol boat is requested and all identified sites are re-sampled taking samples in pre-obtained sample bottles and then taken to Garden State Labs in Sparta (225 S Sparta Ave, Sparta Township, NJ 07871, (800) 273-8901 closes at 4pm)

Programming the Effector Flowmeter Display

Each aerator air flow can be monitored very accurately on the individual effector flowmeters. They are normally set for “scfm” standard cubic feet per minute as shown by the left most LED green indicator being lit. If for some reason, the setting is changed, the following procedure will restore the program back to displaying scfm.

With power on, press “mode/enter” until EF is displayed. Press “set” and HI is displayed

Press “mode/enter” until UNI, press and hold “set “until display stops blinking

Press “set” when scfm is displayed, then press “mode/enter” to complete the program.

The display will read 0.0 when there is no air flow. The maximum air flow reading is 134 scfm. Do not exceed 100 scfm on any aeration device as this is the maximum air flow tolerated. Total airflow capacity of compressors is about 220-240 SCFM.

Paul Sutphen



Solitude Lake Management. (Glenn Sullivan)
Aquatic Technologies OF NJ (Bob Ottman (973-773-9567)
Aquatic Analysts (Larry Kovar)
Princeton Hydro (Chris Mikolajczyk)
Eco System Consulting (Bob Kortmann)
Freys Fish Ponds (Mark Frey, O: 610-995-2700, M: 610-738-3200)
Garden State Laboratories (for coliform, ecoli testing)
225 S. Sparta Ave.
Sparta, NJ 07871


Water Quality Committee

Objectives/Activities of the Water Quality Committee
Our water quality goals for the lake are clarity: 2 meters or greater, total Phosphorus .020 mg. / l or less, zero microcysis from cyanobacteria algae, and trophic index to be categorized as Mesotrophic throughout summer. These goals are supported by limiting the influx of both Nitrogen and Phosphorus to the lake. The Normanoch Board of Directors has endorsed these goals. It will require reversing a decades’ long trend of worsening water quality in order to meet these stretch goals. Every one of these goals is linked to reducing nutrients from both watershed and in-lake recirculation. They are long term goals and it will require time and cooperation by our entire lake membership. We as a team with the Normanoch backing must help our membership support these goals through education and volunteer effort. There is no doubt we will achieve these goals. For 2015, the following activities of the Water Quality Committee are in support of reaching these goals.

  1. Continue weekly water monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and temperature. Obtain periodic (monthly) samples at depth for lab chemistry and planktonic analysis. Continue storm event sampling of selected storm drains and forward results to Princeton Hydro.
  2. Complete a comprehensive inventory of the storm water catchment and drainage system.
  3. Research lake friendly plantings and conduct a “Best Lake- friendly Waterfront” contest to educate and change membership awareness.
  4. Promote water quality education to all members through two seminars (one each in July and August). Round table discussion and Q&A.
  5. Conduct shoreline survey during early July and follow-up sampling as required to identify hotspots.
  6. Develop a septic system database.
  7. Develop a map of topographic contours of the bottom of lake. ( For future database on siltation rate)
  8. Monitor for invasive weed species and conduct a comprehensive survey to map weed specie and density.
  9. Fish survey/fish stocking. Continue fishermen’s catch reporting and scale sampling.


  • Metalimnion
  • Epilimnion
  • Hypolimnion
  • Thermocline
  • Anaerobic
  • Aerobic
  • Anoxic
  • Eutrophication
  • nitrate
  • phosphorus
  • Internal phosphorus
  • Stratification 
  • biological oxygen demand 
  • photosynthesis
  • layer aeration system 
  • nutrient 
  • non-respiratory ammonia 
  • habitat for cold water fish
  • thermal profile 
  • phytoplankton 
  • rhizomes
  • chlorophyll  
  • Naiad
  • Eel Grass  
  • Curly leaf pondweed
  • filamentous algae
  • Eurasian Milfoil
  • Diatom
  • Direct Mixing Diffuser (CMD)
  • blue green algae (B- G) Cyanobacteria
  • Eco strategists
  • synthesizing nitrogen
  • Microcystis
  • harmful algae blooms (HAB)
  • alewives
  • Bio manipulation
  • decomposition
  • Aerobic exchanges
  • aerobic bacteria  
  • alternate terminal electron acceptance
  • Manganese
  • Iron
  • Sulfur
  • internal loading of phosphorus
  • hypo limnetic aeration system
  • Watershed
  • Secchi Disc
  • 900 north location

Monitoring Lake Water

Water Testing (Addendum contains sampling protocol, data sheets)
Culver Lake water needs to be monitored on a routine schedule during the growing season that begins in early April and continues into November. The data collected is used by lake management to assess the changing conditions of the lake’s ecology which responds to the environment. These data are distributed to all parties that make recommendations and conduct lake management activities.

Approximately once a week from April through November, data consisting of DO and temperature in degrees Celsius every 1 meter from surface to 14 meters and secchi disc clarity are recorded consistent with weather and boat availability. These data are recorded on the data sheet (see addendum) at 900 feet north location. This approximate location is used each year is a spot about 900 feet off the clubhouse dock at an intersection of two lines from the Clubhouse to Okesens and Gibles to Baldassono’s houses. GPS coordinates 41deg. 10 min.14.56 sec. N, 74deg. 46 min 25.47 sec. W provide a more accurate method of location of 900N.
Procedure Check List (recommend minimum two people)

Weekly Monitoring
Volunteers do monitoring in early spring and late fall. Trained patrol personnel will do monitoring when their schedule permits. It is always beneficial to have a water quality volunteer aboard. It is best to take readings in mid-late morning while sun is high and other boating is minimal.

Equipment: D.O./Temp. YSI meter, Secchi disc., data sheet and pen.

Obtain keys for Patrol Boat from closet between office and meeting room.

Ready boat and cruise to and anchor at 900 north. Turn on YSI and allow warm-up for 10 minutes. Calibrate YSI before use at this time before immersing in water. Use zero salinity, 800 ft. altitude

Uncoil cable carefully.

Take a secchi reading -two people either side of boat after boat is held by anchor. Record in tenths of a meter. This requires some estimation between marks on rope. Red marks are whole meters and black marks are half meter.

Begin at surface and take reading of T and DO. Gently move probe in water and take reading after temperature reading is stable.

Continue at one meter intervals down to 14 meters. The cable is marked by bands of red tape at each meter. The 14 meter reading will require moving the meter near the gunwale as the cable is short at this depth.

Wildco Depth Sampler (top), Secci Disk (middle), YSI D.O./Temp. Monitor (right)

After all readings are recorded , carefully recoil cable on holder, rinse the probe with distilled water from drinking water bottle, add a few drops inside storage chamber to keep sponge moist, and reinsert in storage chamber in back of meter.

Note on data sheet for current weather and recent rainfall and who took data.

Haul up anchor and cruise to Stehr Cove for weed inspection and note growth and specie types. In midsummer, check areas that were treated with herbicide.

Total time about 1 hour

Dock boat on lifter and return keys.

Uploading Data
Open the Excel sheet from last data and do a “save as” by updating the file name to the current date.

Over write the new data over the previous data for each meter’s DO and temp. Also convert Secchi reading from meters to feet and over write the last data. (Meters x 3.3 ft/meter)

Do a save and attach to email to Water readings distribution list and a bcc to WQ members. Note any unusual conditions such as recent rain fall, weed conditions, aerator units operating and air flows.

The water readings distribution list includes consultants and herbicide contractors

Sampling Procedure/Equipment

The schedule for sampling is shown in the Addendum. The sampling requires familiarity and understanding of the proper procedure for water samples and biology samples. Only trained personnel are to sample.

Water samples are taken at 8 monthly intervals for all stakeholders in the lake management special interest group. The sampling data, reported by laboratory electronically, will be distributed via email attachment to a distribution list. This includes: our consultants, E.S.C (Dr. Robert Kortmann), Princeton Hydro (Dr. Steven Souza, Chris. M.), Normanoch Water Readings Distribution list that includes Lake management Directors and members of the Water Quality Committee. The data from the lab will be kept in our website library.

Sampling intervals are mid-month of April through November. Refer to addendum for protocol for each month sampling. Four water samples are taken at 1m, 4m, 8m. and 12m. One 5m zooplankton sample and one 5m algae draw sample. Bottle sizes are determined by what the laboratory provides. All water samples destined to the laboratory will be conveyed by chain of custody. This requires a signature of responsible party at time of sample pickup.

Generally we take the previously described water readings before doing the 6 samples. So you will need, data sheet, permanent marking pencil, lugorol preservative, 6 sample bottles and the following equipment: the YSI 550A DO/temp. Meter, Secchi Disc, Wildco Water Sampler, the 5 meter algae tubing, and the Wildco Zooplankton sampling net. These are in the WQ equipment

Water Sampling Procedure (this should be done on Wednesday but no later than Thursday to allow for samples pickup by the Lab.). If samples are taken on the weekend, they must be refrigerated until pick up .

Pre-label the sample bottles and stickers in advance. Each week may have a different sample protocol so follow sample table.

Anchor at the 900N location as described above.

Record the water DO and temperature readings along with secchi disc reading as described previously.

Set the sampler (small valves closed and ends open) and lower the water sampler to 1 meter depth as indicated by the red mark on the rope.

Drop the weight and pull up the sampler and drain water sample into 500 ml. bottle labeled 1 meter. Fill sample bottle and overflow so that there is no air. Make bottle is properly labeled and agrees with Lab sticker.

Do the same for the other 3 water samples. Make sure tops are on tight.

Algae Sample Procedure
Lower the clear polypropylene hose weight down into water all the way with about 4 feet of tube above the water surface.

Double over the end and place your finger over the exposed end to prevent air leaking into hose, breaking vacuum and losing sample.

Withdraw hose and with the assistance of a helper, place weighted end into properly labeled 250 ml. bottle and allow air to enter hose. Gradually work all the water out of hose. There will be a small sample of water in bottle – perhaps 25-50 ml. is sufficient. Add 3 drops of Lugurol and tighten down top. Be careful handling the Lugurol that you don’t get any on your skin or clothing. It is iodine and it will stain.

Zooplankton Sample Procedure
Before lowering the Zoo. Net, loosen plug on bottom of sample container and reinsert plug medium firmly.

Lower the Zooplankton sampler to 5 meters depth.

Pull the net upward continuously and as soon as it emerges, with assistance of someone holding container, remove plug. Allow contents to drain in marked 250 ml. bottle. Look inside and see if you can see Zoos. Swimming around. Add 3 drops of Lugorol and seal bottle. Carefully store Lugorol in equipment box.

End of sampling.

Storage and Shipment of samples
Each bottle must be labeled and placed in a special shipping container provided by the laboratory. The chain of custody form must accompany the sample shipment.

Cyano bacteria surveillance

Lake Ecology and Description

Culver Lake is located southwest of the Kittatinny Mountain. A section of the Appalachian Trail overlooks the lake. Formation of the lake occurred about 14-18,000 years ago when glacial materials blocked the valley drainage, thus creating a natural body of water. It is conceivable that at that time, Lake Owassa and Culver Lake were a single body of water. The interim thousands of years during which there was organic sediment deposition, two individual natural lakes formed separated by eutrophic wetlands of about one mile. The level of water of Lake Owassa is about 20 feet higher than Culver Lake and the outlet of Owassa flows to the Inlet of Culver Lake.

Dams were built to control the level of Culver Lake between 1880’s and 1929. The lake level was varied to supply water to mills between the lake and Branchville. The Electric building in Branchville is where a hydroelectric generator supplied Branchville with power using water from Culver Brook. The final dam, a fixed elevation dam, installed by the Normanoch Association in 1929 raised the lake level about 6 feet causing inundation of land that had once been above the lake elevation. Wetlands to the east and west flooded and formed what is known as Stehr Cove and the causeway swamp.

Culver Lake has a maximum depth of about 55 feet and a mean depth of 27 feet. The surface area is 539 acres. The volume of water is 5,275,500,000 gallons. It has a flush rate (turnover) of 2.47 years and a moderately high watershed to lake area of 7.4: 1. There is about 5.5 miles of shoreline.

During the early 1900’s, seasonal cottages were built along the shoreline. By 1930, nearly all of the shoreline properties had been purchased and developed. The properties were platted at an average lot width was 50 – 75 feet. In 1929, the Normanoch Association was formed from 3 original holding companies and the lake was declared private as a result of a landmark lawsuit in 1957.

The lake water quality degraded in the period from 1960 through 1990 mainly due to anthropological eutrophication (man’s activities and development). One of the primary causes of eutrophication is from septic systems leaching nutrients into the ground water to the lake. The number of year round vs. seasonal homes has remained about 50:50. There are about 230 shoreline homes distributed over a five and half mile shoreline. There are nearly 375 homes within a 100 meter distance of the shoreline. Internal phosphorus loading plus external nitrate and phosphorus loading from these sources resulted in degradation of the water quality and the transition of the lake into a eutrophic state during much of the mid-season.

Since Culver Lake is a deep water lake, after mixing in March, it begins to stratify in early spring and becomes strongly stratified by late June. (Stratification is occurring earlier due to climate change). The water below the thermocline, a barrier to mixing, is segregated from any oxygen input except for some layer aeration system (installed in 1990) and the photosynthesis induced oxygen below the thermocline. The biological oxygen demand normally exceeds oxygen sources so that the deepest volume of water in the lake (hypolimniom) becomes anoxic unless the hypolimniom aerator is operating. The layer aeration system provides enough oxygen to prevent nutrient recirculation into the thermocline and thus protect the upper water (epilimniom) from phosphorus. Part of the oxygen introduced by the layer aeration system is absorbed by non-respiratory conversion of ammonia to Nitrate. It also provides DO to improve the habitat for cold water fish.

Lake Stratification and Mixing There are four phases to the lake’s thermal profile during the course of a year. All phases are created by thermal changes that affect the water density as seasonal weather causes heating and cooling of the water. The lake mixes in early spring after ice melts. It then stratifies in mid spring, and remains stratified into fall as solar heating warm the top layer. In late fall, the lake surface cools and mixes down until there is minimal temperature difference then becomes stratified under ice cover. In March, when the surface ice melts, the lake once again mixes down. To summarize, there are two thermal stratification phases and two mixing phases. These phases occur as solar heating and natural wintertime heat loss cause the water density to vary and result in vertical movement within the water column.

A detailed description of the ecology of the lake is outside the scope of this handbook. A simplified version of ecology is described. Culver Lake has a complex ecosystem similar to other fresh water lakes. The ecosystem includes all aquatic animals and plant life. The plants (macrophytes) in the water consist of a wide variety of submerged aquatic vegetation and algae (suspended phytoplankton). The animals consist of invertebrates to large fish, fowl and amphibians.

Plants (Submerged Aquatic Vegetation, SAV, Macrophytes) Plants are rooted in the bottom sediment and derive nourishment (nutrients) from the organic materials in the sediment. A recent Hydrological report (Princeton Hydro) estimated about 200,000 lbs. of sediments enter the lake yearly. Sediment amendments combined with decaying organic matter contain nutrients and stimulate the growth of SAVs. Root systems of SAVs expire CO2 that creates an acidic area in the anaerobic zone of the root system. This acidic zone can solubilize organic substances through bacterial energy exchange and release nutrients of metals including phosphorus.

Culver Lake experiences nuisance weed problems today that did not exist 50 years ago. The invasive species were not in the lake until weed cutting was introduced. Many SAV spread by rhizomes and seed. Growth is influenced by the amount of nutrient availability, light availability, and water temperature. SAV serve an important function in providing a habitat for fish breeding and refuge. Photosynthesis can happen in plants because they have chlorophyll (green in color) that captures the sun’s energy, uses it to make sugar out of carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. The growing cycle of SAV begins very early –even as light penetrates ice covering. Curly leaf pondweed and filamentous algae become established very early. Milfoil and Naiad begin growing when water temperatures moderate in early May and mature by late June and throughout the remainder of the growing season. Eel grass is a late growing native species that begins in July and matures in September. See pictures below: upper left is Curly Leaf, to the right is Southern Naiad and bottom is Eurasian Milfoil.

Southern Naiad

Eurasian Millfoil

Curly Leaf

SAV that are not native to the lake are called invasive species. They accidentally arrived in Culver Lake by dirty boat or weed cutter 15-20 years ago. The greatest nuisance invasive species are Eurasian Milfoil and Southern Naiad. Milfoil is a concern because it rapidly spreads and can grow to the surface in deep water where there is minimum light and can cause large floating masses that block boating paths and shade more indigenous SAV. Naiad is a bush like invasive SAV that covers the bottom and can grow to heights of 2-3 feet. It makes swimming difficult. It is a nuisance in shallow areas along the shoreline. Water fowl like Naiad and in fall can be seen diving for it along the shoreline.

Algae (called phytoplankton) consist of suspended colonies of minute plants that absorb carbon dioxide in the presence of water, light and nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrate and through photosynthesis produce oxygen. Algae in high density cause green, turbid water and affect the desirability of the lake for recreational use.
There are a myriad of species within our lake but for simplicity sake there are four basic types of algae that are of most concern.

Filamentous, is a mossy, slimy, bright green growth that forms on rocks and bottom surfaces in the winter and early spring. It is present in late spring and even early summer coating other SAV and smothering their growth. Filamentous blanketing of the bottom and shading other SAV was observed to retard the growth of Naiad and other SAV.

Diatom is a silicate algae that can be helpful in competing with cyanobacteria. But in Culver Lake, the Diatoms are only present for a short period in spring when the water is cold. After water temperature increases and water density lowers, diatoms do not remain at the upper water because they are not neutral buoyancy creatures and tend to sink to the bottom. The Direct Mixing Diffuser (CMD is one of our aeration devices) that can be operated in spring to reintroduce them into the water column by upwelling. This can delay the point in time when other undesirable algae expand their growth. Early spring water color is amber in part because of the diatom presence.


Green Algae is an important part of the lake food web. It is grazed by zooplankton and it competes with other B-G algae for nutrients. Its photosynthetic production of oxygen supplies needed dissolved oxygen to support a healthy fish population that exist in the surface water where fish must live after stratification

Green Algae

Cyanobacteria is also called blue green algae (B- G) and can dominate most all depths from mid to late summer when surface water temperature is above 20 degree centigrade. Various types of B-G are always present. They are known as Eco strategists due to their ability to adapt to environments where other algae cannot survive. Fossils show that B-G algae has existed for millions of years. Through adaption to harsh environments of high salinity, high and low temperature, low oxygen) B-G algae can position themselves by use of a vascular cell structure to adjust buoyancy to where sufficient light or nutrients exist in the water column for survival. They can out compete other algae in low nutrient environments and some are capable of synthesizing nitrogen from the atmospheric nitrogen. To accomplish this, they must absorb large amounts of solar energy in this process. Lake’s such as Culver with relatively low phosphorus are not a problem to B-G algae because they can carry (store) nutrients in areas where sufficient nutrient levels exist.


Blue Green Bloom

B-G algae in the summer degrade the recreational water quality because they multiply so fast and have the highest algae population. They become so dense that water clarity is reduced below our 2 meter minimum clarity goal. B-G can produce toxins and cause health problems, (skin and eye irritation as well as neurological issues) particularly those specie such as microcysis with harmful algae blooms (HAB). The most prominent species are Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, and Oscillatoria. Fortunately, tests show that Culver Lake has a low level of Microcystis. In large number, as seen above in the Microcystis Bloom picture, can produce toxins.

Zooplankton The green algae and diatom algae are a food source for zooplankton, small herbivores (plant eaters). Culver Lake has insufficient large bodied zooplankton to control algae population. Algae not only causes poor clarity but colors the water a deep green. A current strategy to control algae population is to manipulate the food web within the lake. This bio manipulation is accomplished through stocking predator fish such as walleye and hybrid bass to reduce the population of alewives, the small minnows or shiners that forage on the zooplankton. Bio manipulation at Culver Lake has been going on for about 25 years. In addition, for the past several years, zooplankton are stocked in early spring by a Princeton Hydro. Recent test results for zooplankton have indicated an increase in the number of zooplankton. Below is a picture of Daphnia, a large bodied zooplankton that is a favorite meal for Alewifes. Zooplankton graze on algae and fish graze on zooplankton.



The biology of the lake responds to chemical changes and chemical changes respond to biological processes. Understanding the basic reactions and responses can aid in diagnostic work and in management of the lake. The fundamental processes of chemistry will involve reactions that promote bacterial and biological metabolism during anaerobic and aerobic respiration, iron cycle, nutrient uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen, and other compounds that are reduced in the sediment.

Oxygen A molecule of water (H2O) consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. The oxygen that Lake Management is most concerned is dissolved oxygen or DO. This form of oxygen is dissolved in the water and originates from atmospheric oxygen. D.O. is imparted into the water when water and air mix at the surface. D.O. drives all chemical exchanges in the lake involving aerobic decomposition of dissolved organic carbon (D.O.C.) by respiration when the oxygen is reduced and carbon is oxidized. The result of oxidizing carbon is carbon dioxide (CO2) – a necessary component of plant uptake. Aerobic exchanges cause loss of oxygen. Oxygen is one of the basic elements that all aerobic living organisms from bacteria to zooplankton to fish require to exist. The water can retain significant amount of DO depending on the temperature. A secondary supply of DO comes from plant photosynthesis, the process described above. The greater the exposure to light, the greater DO produced. One objective of layer aeration operation is to utilize photosynthesis generated DO below the thermocline to support fish habitat in cooler water. Sufficient light to support photosynthesis can occur at the compensation depth (1% light), at approximately 2x the Secchi disc depth. If this depth extends below the thermocline depth of 5-6 meters, photosynthetically generated DO becomes available to the layer aerator intake and creates the layer oxygen zone that extends from 6 meter down to about 11 meter depth. This expanded zone is called the metalimnion. It prevents soluble phosphorus from mixing up and entering the surface water.

Anaerobic Respiration The amount of DO in the lake is a function of the rate of biological oxygen demand. Dissolved oxygen after spring mixing is near saturation level. However organic matter in the lake and organic matter from the watershed remove D.O. in the process of bacterial decomposition. The general term respiration applies to oxygen absorption in aerobic conditions and chemical energy exchange in anaerobic conditions.

In Culver Lake, when the lake is stratified during the warm months, the water below the thermocline, called the hypolimniom, is separated from the surface water (epilimniom). The DO is consumed so quickly that by the end of July to mid-August, the bottom of the lake becomes nearly devoid of oxygen. Fish, which require at least 5 milligrams of DO per liter cannot survive and thus move upward to the epilimnion. The only oxygen input to the water below the thermocline comes from the layer aeration and hypo limnetic aeration system as mentioned earlier. When the aeration system was under consideration in 1989, volunteer data showed the DO loss exceeded 1100 Kg per day.

The bottom of the lake contains aerobic bacteria that quickly demand the remaining dissolved oxygen. When oxygen and nitrates are gone, many sediment bacteria (Chemotrophes) are capable of using iron or manganese to accept the electrons generated by their metabolism. This process continues the anaerobic reduction of inorganic compounds. They do this by what is called alternate terminal electron acceptance from other compounds. This means that these organisms, working in an anaerobic environment, are capable of reducing (in an electron exchange process) inorganic ferric iron, manganese, and sulfur in that order as they oxidize themselves in the energy exchange. There is a sequence to the anaerobic respiration; first Nitrates, Manganese, Iron and then Sulfur. When respiration reduces iron, the result is the liberation of ferrous iron and the release of phosphate compounds from the sediment into the water. This process causes the “internal generation” of phosphates or “internal loading of phosphorus”. Lake Management monitoring requires sampling at 8 and 12 meter depths during summer stratification in order to measure components of ATEA such as Ammonia, Nitrate, Manganese and Iron as well as Total Phosphorus in order to assess the degree of respiration taking place in the hypolimniom. These sample results monitor the condition (aerobic vs. anaerobic) of the bottom depths and are useful in managing the hypo limnetic aeration system.

Iron Cycle and Phosphorus
Culver Lake is a moderately soft water lake. The lake is also defined as a phosphorus limited lake. This means that the degree of eutrophication (productivity of biota) depends on the amount of available phosphorus for growth. Stratified lakes that are moderately soft and have high iron content are usually less productive and have better clarity because of the iron’s capacity to bind phosphorus and precipitate it to the bottom. The iron-phosphate compounds in the sediment at the bottom will not solubilize and release phosphorus provided the environment does not become strongly anaerobic. Thus, the phosphorus bound to the iron is unavailable to stimulate plant growth. As explained above, if the bottom of the lake becomes anaerobic, regardless of iron availability, phosphorus can be released as described above. This explains why the aeration system is so important in lake management. The aeration system needs to provide sufficient oxygen to prevent the reduction of iron. The hypo limnetic aerator provides sufficient oxygen to prevent phosphate release, assuming the hypolimnium is a small volume of water and the layer units are functioning. If the layer aeration system is not operating successfully, the hypolimniom is very large and the DO is quickly consumed and the environment changes to anaerobic. To summarize, the two ingredients needed to control internal phosphorus recirculation is oxygen and iron. In the 1990’s, iron was added to the lake. Prior to its addition, the total phosphorus (TP) was in the 25-35 ug/l range. By 2002, after the iron cycle reestablished itself, the TP was 5-15 ug/l. Consequently, the mean depth clarity increased from 1.1 to 2.0 meters. This was the result of the iron controlling the internal phosphorus recirculation.

Management of the lake iron cycle requires manipulation of oxygen in the hypolimniom. Late in the summer or early fall before the lake cools and mixes, the hypo limnetic aerator is shutdown. The small amount of available oxygen in the sediment is quickly used up and oxidation environment quickly transforms to an anaerobic respiration process thus liberating ferrous iron into the water column. Phosphorus is also liberated at the same time. But the quantity of iron compared to phosphorous compounds is an order of magnitude higher – perhaps as much as 5 times or greater. During the fall lake turn over, oxygenated water from the surface which is higher in density, mixes down with the iron and phosphorus in aerobic exchange to precipitate (remove) the phosphorous. Each year, additional phosphorus enters the lake from the watershed (external loading). This P together with the recirculated P are both removed. As the lake begins a new growing season, the TP in the lake is indicative of any external loading not removed in the fall. This completes the iron cycle and has successfully reduced the internal TP loading in the lake by 90% and the total TP loading by about 30 -40%.

Nutrients of Phosphorus, Nitrates and Watershed Effects
The lake is surrounded by a watershed. The area of the watershed is mostly forested land. But in the early 1900’s, cottages and hotels were built along the shoreline on very small lots. Before electricity was available, water use was limited to spring water and lake water. Toilet use was by outhouses.

In the early 1930’s, JCP&L extended electric lines to the lake. People wanted running water so pumps were installed and pits were built to receive waste water. This was 30 years before NJDEP promulgated regulations on septic design. Fast forward to the present, approximately the same number of houses exist, some larger homes being built in the past 20 years, and some converted summer cottages converted to year round living. All homes in the lake community are served by septic systems and some of these systems have been in operation for decades.

The septic systems were placed at much higher density (approximately 4 homes/acre) then what would be permitted by zoning regulation today (1 home/5 acres). In the 1989 Culver Lake Study by Princeton Hydro (Coastal Engineering at that time), septic systems were identified as the number one cause of Culver Lake’s water quality problem.

A new approach to lake management as a result of this study set goals to restore the lake led to the installation of the aeration system and to reduce the internal nutrient load and implement a septic management plan. In addition, because the lake was eutrophic, there was an excess of alewife fish and a disparity of algae eating zooplankton. The study recommended stocking hybrid bass and aggressive seining of the alewives. The Normanoch adopted this lake management strategy and still adheres to these original recommendations today.

Septic systems within 100 meter distance to the shoreline are contributing the most nutrients to the lake according to scientific sources. There are two main components of nutrients that affect the water quality: phosphorus and nitrate. Both are products of human activity.

Since the lake is phosphorus limited, even small amounts entering the lake via ground water or surface water from the watershed causes increased growth of algae and lower clarity. Septic systems can discharge to the disposal field as much as 15 micrograms per liter of phosphorus depending on the number of house occupants and the amount of water that is consumed. The Normanoch has requested its members to have their septic tanks pumped at an interval of every three years for seasonal use and once every two years for year round use. Normanoch will reimburse $100 for pumping every two years.

Previously, fertilizer and detergents that did contain phosphorous no longer are available to the public. Chemical based fertilizer contains nitrogen and potassium and no phosphorus. Fertilizing lawns with the wrong product at the wrong time can result in nutrient water runoff to the lake. Maintaining a healthy lawn by not cutting the grass short will reduce evaporative losses, withstand dry periods longer than a lawn not properly cared for.

Phosphorus and nitrogen can come from other than septic systems sources. Leaves, clippings, dirt, run-off all contain these elements that are harmful to the lake. Phosphorus is known to attach to the dirt particles. Normanoch rules forbid discharging debris in the water such as leaves, clippings, compost and garbage.

The Normanoch Association and the Greater Culver lake Watershed Conservation Foundation both support watershed management of storm water on their properties so that rain water is absorbed in the soil rather than discharged over the ground where it picks up nutrients before entering the lake. Rain gardens are an excellent way to deal with runoff. A well designed rain garden can absorb a 1 inch storm event. Rain barrels, another method of managing storm water, can provide a source of garden water in dry weather.

Introduction and Objectives

This Lake Management Handbook has been put together by
the Water Quality Committee members from the Normanoch Board with the following objectives
in mind:

    Provide a guide book for the next generation of Lake Managers at
    Normanoch/Culver lake. These might be board members, professional staff
    and / or volunteers

  • Provide a general information and education source concerning Culver
    Lake ecology to Normanoch members. It is anticipated this information sources will provide accelerated learning of lake management tasks and responsibilities for new members to the board/wq committee.

  • Construct a reference that is a “living document” that can be updated
    as conditions and needs change.

  • Consolidate information that currently exists in disparate place
  • Facilitate development of trend data by consolidating collection